Release Date: 23-Mar-2023
One of the most revolutionary developments in the drug development process was the creation of proprietary technical platforms, which have substantially facilitated and simplified the identification and manufacture of pharmaceuticals based on antibodies. These technology platforms, which are currently in the pipelines of several prominent global companies, have been used to develop the majority of their antibody drugs and have served as the foundation for numerous research and development partnerships aimed at the development of novel antibodies. Tetraspecific antibodies are a new type of antibody that has recently gained popularity and proprietary technologies are now being developed to generate these innovative antibodies due to their distinct architectures and binding potential.
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Tetraspecific antibodies, as their name implies, can bind to four proteins simultaneously, including cancer antigens, and trigger an immune response against the bound tumor. Although the field is still in its infancy, some companies have initiated the development of these antibodies, which are also visible in their pipelines. It is crucial to remember that their proprietary technologies played a fundamental role in making this possible. For example, IPH6501, a product of Innate Pharma, is a tetraspecific NK cell engager was recently unveiled as the first of its kind. IPH6501 binds to the tumor antigen CD20, which is frequently present in lymphomas of the B cell, as well as the interleukin-2 receptor variant IL-2v and the activating receptors NKp46 and CD16 found on natural killer (NK) cells.
These next-generation, multi-specific NK cell engagers were created by Innate using its patented platform, the ANKETandreg; (Antibody-based NK cell Engager Therapies). Immune cell engagers had previously been created to mainly engage T cells through their CD3 co-receptors; however, with the ANKET platform now present in the scenario, these engagers are now focusing on NK cells. Further, Sanofi has received a license to use another product from Innate's platform that was built on the ANKET platform. It has been established that this candidate targets the B7-H3, even though neither company has stated whether or not it is a tetraspecific NK cell engager.
The Guidance and Navigation Control (GNC) technology from Systimmune has gained attention in the previous few years. This GNC platform has been utilized to create tetraspecific cell engagers that can simultaneously engage T cells and cancer antigens to mediate the cytolysis of cancer cells by T cells. Three tetraspecific antibodies have been created for the treatment of various tumors by SystImmune, the US-based subsidiary of China’s Sichuan Baili Pharmaceutical, and Sichuan Baili itself. They are the pioneers in the clinical evaluation of tetraspecific antibodies their candidates, GNC-038, GNC-039, and GNC-035, are the only tetraspecific antibodies in the clinical evaluation pipeline. While the latter two candidates are now undergoing phase I clinical trials, GNC-038 has progressed into phase II/III trials.
The first tetraspecific antibody to enter clinical trials was GNC-038, and once again, the GNC platform was crucial to this accomplishment. The development of the other two was inspired by the success of GNC-038. Moreover, new tetraspecific antibody candidates that are in the preclinical or research stages have been developed. It is hoped that the inclusion of drugs in the clinical pipeline will increase interest in this area.
For the purpose of developing some of its existing candidates, several other companies such as Zyngenia and Numab, have also built their own unique technology platforms. Although no candidate based on these platforms has been developed or is now undergoing clinical review, the companies have recognised the novel qualities of their technology as one that can also enable the production of multispecific antibodies, including tetraspecific antibodies. As a result, these platforms have the potential to produce tetraspecific antibodies; nevertheless, this potential has to be realized and used in practice.
Hence, proprietary technologies have been crucial in the development of a number of drugs based on antibodies and are predicted to continue to be so in the future. Pharmaceutical companies are already utilizing these properties to create tetraspecific antibodies, which have the potential to revolutionize cancer treatment for many solid malignancies. Various platforms offer distinct advantages, which makes experimenting with these even more fun and resulting in innovative antibodies. As focus in the science domains shift towards development of novel drugs, these proprietary technologies are expected to become a major focus of drug developers.