The outline of human vaccines had an incredible impact on global health system which resulted in intense reduction of mortality and morbidity caused by numerous diseases. Vaccines have led to some of the greatest public health achievements ever, including the eradication of naturally occurring smallpox from the globe and the near eradication of polio. This prophylaxis had a long journey through various roads and tunnels to become the humanities’ key achievement. Despite of the fact, that its mechanism of action remained unclear for centuries. New vaccines coined up in nineteenth century and after the expanded studies of infectious diseases and processed microorganism vaccination has become an intensive subject to be studied. By all the new advances towards the discovery and understanding of various diseases, our species was able to find a way to eradicate them.
In recent years peptides have emerged as the considerable vaccine candidate owning to their simple and cost efficient production & development process. Peptides are recognized for being highly selective and efficacious and, at the same time, relatively safe and well tolerated. Given their attractive pharmacological profile and intrinsic properties, peptides represent an excellent starting point for the design of novel therapeutics. Several peptide vaccines are now being designed and are encountering phase I and phase II clinical trials.
Peptide vaccines include one or more short or long amino acids sequences, as an antigen combined with a vaccine adjuvant. Thus they fall in the broad category of defined antigen vaccines, along with the vaccines using proteins, protein sub units, DNA and RNA. They remain the most immunogenic approaches based on the measures of T-cell responses. Peptide immunogenicity is influenced by the way in which peptides are presented to the immune system, underscoring the need for multifunctional delivery systems that couple antigen and adjuvant into a single construct.
Cancer immunotherapy by peptide vaccines is one of most emerging and significant segment that could help pharmaceutical companies to generate more revenues and help patients to alleviate their medical condition. Peptide vaccine for treatment of metastatic prostate cancer has been introduced in global market. This segment has tendency towards clinical trials as compared to marketed products. Most of the novel products are at different stages of clinical trials which would be introduced in global market in coming years. Biomarkers like Melanoma-Associated Antigen 1 (MAGE-1) for melanoma cancer vaccine and NY-ESO-1 for lung cancer are being developed. Their development requires state-of-art technology due to which they are still not available in market. But confidently these drugs are going to overcome the all hurdles and will become the best suitable candidates in drug market.
A persistent theme in recent peptide based therapeutics is to trigger adaptive antigen specific responses. The next generation drugs will be designed to deliver defined antigenic peptides, target DCs and PRR agonists. Combinations of carrier with TLR agonists provide new advantages of their cytokine production in enhancing immune response.This is already evident that in ongoing clinical trials that the benefits of using such vaccines will be large however safety concerns with diseases like cancer and HIV are still under critical observations. With the growing knowledge of immunological mechanism of adjuvant action, including identifying the role of specific signaling pathways peptide based vaccines are going to become more attractive and more effective segment of therapeutics.
Although, the opinions of experts in this field are mixed, it is likely that with new product approvals and advanced research, the field of active peptide immunotherapy is self-assured for dramatic growth in the coming years. Using the gained knowledge and history of passive immunotherapy development as guiding tool, the peptides will revolutionize the market with modern treatment of varied diseases by the means of peptides vaccines.
“Global Peptide Vaccine Market & Clinical Pipeline Outlook 2020” Report Highlights: