Release Date: 20-Oct-2022
The development of multispecific antibodies such bispecific, trispecific and tetraspecific antibodies was driven by the commercial success of monoclonal antibodies. Among these, bispecific antibodies were the first ones to be developed which, because of their unique mechanism of selective binding, were successful in disrupting more than one biochemical pathway simultaneously, thus enhancing the immune response. Following the same unique binding concept, tri- and tetraspecific antibodies were developed in the same time frame. Being more specific, they are conceptually perceived to be much better than both mono- and bi- specific antibodies, and though no drug belonging to these novel types has been approved yet, trials are underway to test their efficiency in treating cancers. Even so, they both are theoretically more advanced than the previously introduced antibodies, tetraspecific antibodies are considered to be better than the two because of the presence of four unique binding arms, which provides the highest level of specificity yet among all antibodies.
Tetraspecific Antibodies Clinical Trials, Proprietary Technologies, Companies and Market Trends Insight 2023
The development of tetra specific antibodies, which have a more complicated design and structure, was made possible by breakthroughs in biotechnology, particularly with the introduction of computer assisted molecular and drug design with the purpose of developing a novel treatment method. Tetra specific antibodies have four arms which are made to recognize and bind to four antigens simultaneously, which makes them a highly specific form of targeted therapy. The development of tetra specific antibodies comes at a time when targeted therapies are rapidly gaining popularity and acceptance globally, with some of them being employed as a last resort for cancer patients who had failed conventional therapies.
Targeted therapies have an upper hand over conventional cancer treatments because of less serious side effects and low toxic effects stemming from the fact that they have been developed to only attack cells which express a certain antigen. Instead of killing cancer cells, directly they detrimentally affect cancer cells by interfering with their pathways or by directing immune cells of the body to cancer cells. On the other hand, conventional cancer treatment methods namely radiation and chemotherapy have shown to harm healthy cells as well which very often result in undesired effects but have a faster response rate. Thus to maximize the anti - cancer effects, targeted therapies are frequently administered in conjunction with conventional therapies which reduces the duration of treatment.
Even with this major encouraging market factor at play, the development of tetra specific antibodies has been slow, with only a few clinical studies registered in the clinical trials registered. A majority of these which are currently under development have been developed by small clinical stage biotechnological companies or academic health science centers without involvement from any major pharmaceutical company. Being a resource intensive molecule, it is obvious prominent pharma companies will want to wait for the commercial performance of the pilot tetra specific antibody before investing in its development.
China is currently leading all registered tetra specific antibody clinical trials which are being held against solid tumors and cancers of the blood. These trials are mainly in their phase I or phase I/II of trials and are anticipated to reach a conclusion in the next 3 years. Some important companies actively involved the development and clinical testing of tetra specific antibodies are Innate Pharma, Numab and SystImmune. Most of their drugs are in preclinical development or in early stages of clinical trials against various forms of cancer. With the application of specialized platforms to aid in the development of tetra specific antibodies, these budding companies have been able to further expand the specificity and efficacy of antibodies and improve their function.
Tetra specific antibodies, along with other multispecific antibodies, are a very vibrant and promising field, but there are still some important obstacles to overcome. The possibility of lack of adequate target antigens for the bulk of malignancies is undoubtedly the most critical challenge. Additionally, because tetra specific antibodies have high development and research costs, sluggish progress in a clinical trial, for instance, caused by difficult strategies and a small patient group, may lead the investigators to abandon the project if the sponsor or the company making the antibody runs out of money. However, being an emerging field, there is still room to explore, especially the effects it can impart when administered with other treatment methods. The functionality of tetra specific antibodies can further be extended through fusion with other non-Ig proteins. Along the same lines, they will probably need to be combined with other immunotherapies to have a more synergic anti - cancer effect. Thus, with their unique mode of working, tetra specific antibodies have the potential to lead cancer therapies in the future because of their superiority over existing antibody treatment methods.