Immune-Related Adverse Events Associated with Immunotherapy Treatment Regimen

Release Date: 11-Aug-2020

The arrival of immunotherapy has completely revolutionized the concept of treating cancers. Various different therapies available under it attacks the programmed death-1 and programmed death-ligand 1 interaction. In most of the cancer cells, interaction between PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibits the activation of the T-cells against the cancer cells. Therefore, there are several different inhibitors available for breaking such type of interaction that is a result of cancer development and progression. To perform so, researchers have developed PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors that acts by increasing the response of the immune cells against the cancer cells. The mechanism of action followed by immunotherapy process is considered as one of the most important clinical methodlogy developed against the cancer cells.  


As there are several different advantages associated with the arrival of immunotherapy for the cancer patients but the same is also associated with severe complications. It has been observed that the activation of the T cells by using PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors can sometimes leads to misidentification of the self cells and the non-self cells, leading to the development of severe immune related adverse events. Some of the immune related adverse events include liver dysfunction, rash, colitis, nephritis, pneumonitis and endocrinopathies. It is also reported through several different studies conducted for the same that misidentification by the immune cells mostly leads to hepatotoxicity. 


Sometimes the case of hepatitis is also reported due to PD-1 inhibitor. It is estimated that it results due to the elevated enzyme and bilirubin in the liver. According to the research conducted, it is estimated that hypoproteinemia is the first manifestation under the treatment of PD-1 inhibitors when it was combined with the process of chemotherapy. It was disclosed that hypoproteinemia is one of the manifestations which will help in understanding the diseases that are related with immunotherapy treatment.

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